Medium and High Voltage Arrester and Lightning Standards Overviews

IEEE Standards Overviews

C62.11a -2008
IEEE Standard for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuits (> 1 kV) Amendment 1 Short Circuit Testing for Station, Intermediate and Distribution Arresters
In July 2008 the IEEE standards department published C62.11a, an amendment to C62.11. This new amendment now specifies a short circuit test for all arresters. It has been years in the making. What makes this amendment so unique is that it is virtually identical to the test procedure published in IEC 60099-4 in 2006. This is a first for arrester standards harmonization. Though it will be many years before the both standards are virtually the same, this is a first step. See Complete Overview

C62.11 -2005
IEEE Standard for Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuits (> 1 kV)
This standard applies to metal-oxide surge arresters (MOSAs) designed to repeatedly limit the voltage surges on 48 Hz to 62 Hz power circuits (>1000 V) by passing surge discharge current and automatically limiting the flow of system power current. This standard applies to devices for separate mounting and to devices supplied integrally with other equipment. The tests demonstrate that an arrester can survive the rigors of reasonable environmental conditions and system phenomena while protecting equipment and/or the system from damaging overvoltages caused by lightning, switching, and other undesirable surges

C62. 1 (Obsolete and withdrawn as a standard)
IEEE Standard for Gapped Silicon-Carbide Surge Arresters for AC Power Circuits Superseded by C62.11

Draft Guide for the Application of Surge Voltage Protective Equipment on AC Rotating Machinery 1000 Volts and greater Part 1
This guide covers the application of surge voltage protective equipment to AC rotating machines rated 1000 volts and greater. The guide does not cover motors applied in solid-state switched adjustable speed drives. Part 1 covers the insulation surge withstand strength of motors and generators with windings having form-wound multi-turn coils and the application of surge protection to form-wound multi-turn coil motors.

C62.22.1 (also known as IEEE 1299)
IEEE Guide for the Connection of Surge Arresters to Protect Insulated, Shielded Electric Power Cable Systems

This guide suggests surge arrester installation methods at distribution cable terminal poles in order to minimize the total impressed transient voltage on medium-voltage distribution cables. Grounding electrode techniques, pole ground values, and system ground grid values are not addressed or considered in this document.

C62.22 (Superseded C62.2)
IEEE Guide for Application of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for Alternating-Current Systems

The application of metal-oxide surge arresters to safeguard electric power equipment against the hazards of abnormally high voltage surges of various origins is covered. Systematic directions toward proper solutions of various applications are provided. In many cases, the prescribed steps are adequate. More complex and special solutions requiring study by experienced engineers is described, but specific solutions are not always given. The procedures are based on theoretical studies, test results, and experience.

C62.23 (previously IEEE 1041)
IEEE Application Guide for Surge Protection of Electric Generating Plants

This standard consolidates most electric utility power industry practices, accepted theories, existing standards/guides, definitions, and technical references as they specifically pertain to surge protection of electric power generating plants. Where technical information is not readily available, guidance is provided to aid toward proper surge protection and to reduce interference to communication, control, and protection circuits due to surges and other overvoltages. It has to be recognized that this application guide approaches the subject of surge protection from a common or generalized application viewpoint. Complex applications of surge protection practices may require specialized study by experienced engineers.

C62.92 Series
IEEE Guide for the Application of Neutral Grounding in Electrical Utility Systems

This standard covers basic considerations for the selection of neutral grounding parameters that provide for the control of ground- fault current and overvoltage on all portions of three-phase electrical utility systems. These considerations apply specifically to electric utility systems and do not recognize the neutral grounding requirements for dispersed storage and generation.
C62.92.1 - Part I - Introduction
C62.92.2 - Part II - Grounding of Synchronous Generator Systems
C62.92.3 - Part III - Generator Auxiliary Systems
C62.92.4 - Part IV - Distribution Systems
C62.92.5 - Part V - Transmission Systems

Lightning Mitigation Related Standards

IEEE 1410
IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Electric Power Overhead Distribution Lines

This design guide is written for the distribution-line designer and contains information on methods to improve the lightning performance of overhead distribution lines. This guide recognizes that a perfect line design does not exist, and that a series of compromises are made in any distribution-line design. While some parameters such as voltage, routing, and capacity may be predetermined, other decisions are made at the discretion of the designer. The designer may exercise control over structure material and geometry, shielding (if any), amount of insulation, grounding, and placement of arresters. This guide will help the distribution-line designer optimize the line design in light of cost benefit considerations.

IEEE 1243
IEEE Guide for Improving the Lightning Performance of Transmission Lines

The effects of routing, structure type, insulation, shielding, and grounding on transmission lines are discussed. The way these transmission-line choices will improve or degrade lightning performance is also provided. An additional section discusses several special methods that may be used to improve lightning performance. Finally, a listing and description of the FLASH program is presented.

Insulation Coordination Standards

IEEE C62.82.1
IEEE Standard for Insulation Coordination, Definitions, Principles, and Rules

The procedure for selection of the withstand voltages for equipment phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase insulation systems is specified. A list of standard insulation levels, based on the voltage stress to which the equipment is

IEEE C62.82.2
IEEE Guide for the Application of Insulation Coordination

This guide contains calculation method for selection of phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase insulation withstand voltages for equipment is presented. This guide gives methods for insulation coordination of different air-insulated systems like transmission lines and substations. The methods of analysis are illustrated by practical examples.

IEEE 824
IEEE Standard for Series Capacitors in Power Systems

Capacitors and assemblies of capacitors, insulation means, switching, protective equipment, and control accessories that form a complete bank for inserting in series with a transmission line are applied. Included are requirements for safety, rating, and protective device levels. Functional requirements for alarm devices, maintenance, design and production tests, and a guide for operation are included. Functional requirements for protective devices are addressed, including varistors and bypass gaps.

IEC Standards Associated with Arresters and Lightning

IEC 60099-1
Surge arresters - Part 1: Non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters for a.c. systems

This standard applies to series gapped Silicon Carbide Arresters. This standard is not maintained and applies to products not manufactured any longer.

IEC 60099-3
Surge arresters - Part 3: Artificial pollution testing of surge arresters

This standard gives the basic principles of artificial pollution testing of non-linear resistor type (valve type) surge arresters. Also includes details of pollutant compositions and methods of application and the procedures associated with each mode of pollution. (Preview)

IEC60099-4 (Latest edition is 60099-4 Edition 2.1 2006-07)
Surge arresters - Part 4: Metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps for a.c. systems

This part of IEC 60099 presents the minimum criteria for the requirements and testing of gapless metal-oxide surge arresters that are applied to a.c. power systems. Arresters covered by this standard are commonly applied to live/front overhead installations in place of the non-linear resistor-type gapped arresters covered in IEC 60099-1. (Preview)

IEC60099-4-am2 Ed. 2.0 Bilingual
Feb 26, 2009
The IEC has published a new edition of 60099-4. An overview of the additions and deletions in this document are covered in detail in ArresterFacts 007 Understanding New IEC Mechanical Requirements.

This new edition covers new mechanical test requirements for polymer and porcelain housed arresters.

IEC 60099-5 1998
Surge Arresters: Part 5 Selection and application recommendations

This standard provides recommendations for the selection and application of surge arresters to be used in three-phase systems with nominal voltages above 1kV. It applies to non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters as defined in IEC 60099-1 and to gapless metal-oxide surge arresters as defined in IEC 60099-4. A new edition will be available in 2010 or 2011 that will include arresters gapped MOV arresters including EGLA (Preview)

IEC 60099-6
Part 6: Surge arresters containing both series and parallel gapped structures - Rated 52 kV and less

This standard applies to all metal-oxide surge arresters with gaps and housed in either porcelain or polymeric housings. This standard also specifies requirements and tests for metal-oxide surge arresters with internal series gaps, with rated voltages of 52KV and below (Preview)

Surge arresters - Part 7: Glossary of terms and definitions from IEC publications 60099-1, 60099-4, 60099-6, 61643-1, 61643-12, 61643-21, 61643-311, 61643-321, 61643-331 and 61643-341

This standard provides a list of terms and definitions relative to IEC publications from IEC technical committee 37: Surge Arresters and subcommittees 37A: Surge protective devices, and 37B: Surge protective components, current at the date of this publication. (Preview)

IEC 60099-8 (In Draft form only - Not yet published as of 4-2008)
Surge arresters - Part 8: Metal-oxide surge arresters with external series gap (EGLA) for overhead transmission and distribution lines of a.c. systems above 1 kV
This standard defines the surge arrester to protect the insulator assembly from lightning caused overvoltages only. Therefore, the following duties for the metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps and the metal-oxide surge arresters with internal series gap to operate due to slow front overvoltages caused by switching or system faults are not considered for this standard:

  • switching impulse sparkover voltage;
  • residual voltage at steep current and switching current impulse;
  • residual voltage at steep current and switching current impulse;
  • thermal stability;
  • long-duration current impulse withstand duty;
  • power-frequency voltage versus time characteristics of an arrester;
  • disconnector test;
  • aging duties by power-frequency voltage.
Considering the particular design concept and the special application on overhead transmission and distribution lines, some unique requirements and tests are introduced, such as verification test for coordination between insulator and EGLA withstand, follow current interrupting test, mechanical load tests etc.

Insulation Coordination Standards

Insulation co-ordination - Part 1: Definitions, principles and rules

This part of IEC 60071 applies to three-phase a.c. systems having a highest voltage for equipment above 1 kV. It specifies the procedure for the selection of the rated withstand voltages for the phase-to-earth, phase-to-phase and longitudinal insulation of the equipment and the installations of these systems. It also gives the lists of the standard withstand voltages from which the rated withstand voltages should be selected. This standard recommends that the selected withstand voltages should be associated with the highest voltage for equipment. This association is for insulation co-ordination purposes only. The requirements for human safety are not covered by this standard. (Preview)

Insulation co-ordination - Part 2: Application guide

This standard gives guidance for the determination of the rated withstand voltages for ranges I and II of IEC 60071-1 and justifies the association of these rated values with the standardized highest voltages for equipment. It covers phase-to-phase, phase-to-earth and longitudinal insulation of three-phase systems with nominal voltages above 1kV (Preview)

Insulation co-ordination - Part 4: Computational guide to insulation co-ordination and modeling of electrical networks

This technical report gives guidance on conducting insulation co-ordination studies which propose internationally recognized recommendations
  • for the numerical modeling of electrical systems including arresters and
  • for the implementation of deterministic and probabilistic methods adapted to the use of numerical programs.
Its object is to give information in terms of methods, modeling and examples, allowing for the application of the approaches presented in IEC 60071-2, and for the selection of insulation levels of equipment or installations, as defined in IEC 60071-1. (Preview)

High-voltage test techniques - Partial discharge measurements

This International Standard is applicable to the measurement of partial discharges which occur in electrical apparatus, components or systems when tested with alternating voltages up to 400 Hz or with direct voltage.
This standard

  • defines the terms used;
  • defines the quantities to be measured;
  • describes test and measuring circuits which may be used;
  • defines analogue and digital measuring methods required for common applications;
  • specifies methods for calibration and requirements of instruments used for calibration;
  • gives guidance on test procedures;
  • gives some assistance concerning the discrimination of partial discharges from external interference. (Preview)
Series capacitors for power systems - Part 2: Protective equipment for series capacitor banks

This part of IEC 143 covers protective equipment for series capacitor banks, with a size larger than 10 Mvar per phase. Protective equipment is defined as the main circuit apparatus and ancillary equipment, which are part of a series capacitor installation, but which are external to the capacitor part itself. The recommendations for the capacitor part are given in IEC 143. The protective equipment is mentioned in clauses 1.3 and 7.6 of IEC 143. (Preview)

Railway applications - Fixed installations - DC switchgear - Part 5: Surge arresters and low-voltage limiters for specific use in d.c. systems

Clauses 4, 5 and 6 of this part of IEC 61992 cover particular requirements for surge arresters (following named arresters) for specific use in fixed installations of d.c. traction systems. These are surge arresters consisting of one or more non-linear resistors which may be in series with single or multiple spark gaps.
Low-voltage limiters are covered under Clause 7. These are protective devices mainly used in fixed installations of d.c. traction systems to connect certain portions of the circuit, when, owing to an abnormal situation, the voltage across the device exceeds a predetermined limited value. They may be associated with other devices such as contactors for self-restoring arrangements. They are not used in general to provide surge protection.
The following are the main uses of Low-Voltage Limiters (LVL):
  • connection to the rail of metallic masses;
  • protection of rail circuits;
  • earthing of rails in the substation;
  • protection of cathodic circuits;
  • protection of cable shields. (Preview)